The environmental threat perception in India , was simultaneous with that of the developed countries of the world . But India lagged behind in putting forward any system for planned management of its fragile eco-system that is in constant conflict with the needs of development .
Indian scenario is bleak , what with all round failures in arresting the population growth with attendant pressures on land and scarce natural resources , increasing urbanisation , industrialisation , growth in rapacious consumption , wasteful life styles and the like . Lack of technology as well as resources has thrown India into the vortex of crisis . Result – India has failed to link up its pattern of national development with environmental concerns .
India started its slow but determined journey toward development after Independence . The sixties were the decade of miracles , the country achieving self -sufficiency in food grain production , spectacular progress in industrialisation especially in infrastructure and having the largest trained human resources. The miracles of the sixties , however , have become the nightmares of the nineties. On the 50th year of its independence India stands exposed to the short – comings of the technology which aimed at rapid growth without taking into account environmental costs .
Over the Five decades of planned development in India, the thrust has always been on economic growth to grapple with age old problems of poverty and provision of basic minimum amenities. This over concern with property and property alleviation programmes , understandably so, was reflected at the UN Conference on Human Environment , held at Stockholm in 1972, where Mrs. Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India declared that ‘poverty is the biggest polluter’. She went on to emphasize that ‘the environment problems of developing countries are not side effects of industrialisation , but reflect the inadequacy of development .The rich countries may look upon development as the cause of environment destruction , but to us it is one of the primary means of improving the environment for the living or providing food, water, sanitation and shelter or making the deserts green , the mountains habitable’.
The side effects of such emphasis however, have become major causes of worry. The key instruments of development – industrialisation , modernisation , urbanisation et all – have caused unwanted stress and strain on the environment and interfered with nature’s own balance mechanisms.
Survival dictates that the instruments of development can’ t be dispensed with . The focus , therefore, need to be shifted to harmonise these activities with nature to achieve what is called sustainable development.
A conceptual dichotomy defines India’s perception as well as management of environmental issues . This is inevitable too . Environment threat perception is highly subjective and variable . It is also a function of information , perceptual readiness, group pressure , reference groups , organisational positions, reward systems and past reinforcements . Environment related decisions are made within the perceived environment and more often than not , environment conflicts are traceable to differing perceptions of parties to the conflict arising out of implementation of environment policies.
In India , coming as it is , into grips, the dichotomous relationship between westernised models of development and the preservation environment on the face of its fight against poverty, this conflict exists broadly on three levels:-
Some castigate excessive concern for environment as a result of conspiracy of the developed nations against progress in the underdeveloped countries like India and maintain that India may address issues concerning environment only after it reaches the level of production and consumption of ‘ the industrialised nations. Besides, this concern could well retard India’s development efforts.
Some others feel that concern for environment is bound to divert attention from the problems of the poor. Environment , to this group has nothing to do with trying to give a better deal to the large and ever growing population . Contrarily , it is poverty that creates the tragic consequences of environment degradation leading to more poverty.
And there are those, who believe that in India at least the very large and ever-growing population is responsible for the environment crises . ‘ The sign of environmental stress grow as the……population increases ’ .(2)
While there can be no end to the debate , it remains a fact that , development and environment are not necessarily incompatible . As P.V.N Rao, the former Indian Prime Minister would say at the National Environment Council meeting , the country need to strike a balance between development and the preservation of the environment in the interest ,both of environment as well as development ….. the race for development should not be a race for destruction .(3) Indian experience confirms that developing countries have always had dealt with natural environment problems and the efforts towards awareness generation and implementation of specific programmes of action are steps in the right direction to avoid the mistakes the developed countries committed.
In India, most environment related problems thrive on massive ignorance of the mechanisms of the natural eco-system vis – a – vis over jealousness in implementation of various development projects that fail to comprehend the intricacies of complex inter woven life chain . The activities and concerns are not based on holistic understanding of the relationship between environment and development process in the country. Rather, these are based on the belief that the concern for environment , essentially means its protection and conservation partly from development programmes , but mainly from the people themselves . However development without concern for environment can only be short term . In the long run , it can go on only at the cost of enormous human suffering . Unfortunately, efforts to modify the development process itself so as to bring it in harmony with the nature and the people, that sustains ecological balance along with increasing productivity of land , water and forest resources are singular in lacking . As a consequence , India after five decades of planned development, faces both an environmental crisis and a developmental crisis that interact to reinforce each other . While there seem to be no end to the problems of inequality, poverty and unemployment on the one hand , environmental destruction threatens the very basis of existence of multitude of India’s teeming millions, on the other.
Causes of Environmental Degradation
The Development Dilemma
Indian environmental imbroglio is imbedded in the pattern of national development that the country gave to itself , borrowing ideas largely from the developed countries with highest consumerism and wasteful life styles. It is also the inevitable outcome of the misuse of natural resource base – soil , forest , water and bio-diversity .This with heavy debt-burden high interest rates and regressive terms of trade has put enormous pressure on the country’s natural resource bases, often even to the point of over-exploitation .
The side effects of modernisation and industrialisation in India are there for all to see . In their search for cheap biomass based raw materials and cheaper opportunities for waste disposal, the agents of modernization and industrialisation destroy environment in big ways. In the absence of deterrent legislation and executive control attempts to internalise environment costs are absent , which are passed on to the society.
An overdose of developmental preoccupation is also transforming , steadily the very character of nature which strike at the root of ecological balance mechanisms. In physical terms, the tendency is to reduce the natural bio-diversity, transformations being aimed at inducing high-yielding mono-cultures. The driving force here is the commodification of nature without any consideration of the long term sustainability of the new system .In social terms, the transformation is towards a nature that is geared to cater to the needs of the industry and the urban community , a nature that is essentially cash-generating . The manifestations of such tendencies can be found , among others , in attempts to create pine forests in place oak in Himalayas, teak in place of sal in Chotnagpur Plateue, eucalyptus in place of natural vegetation in Western-Ghats, oil-palms in Great Nicober Islands and rubber in North east . Large scale mono culture has the potential of destroying the quantity as well as quality of the top soil essential for survival of plants , would lead to soil erosion, destruction of soil cover and acidification of soil culminating in total bareness causing serious damage to the biodiversity .(4)
It is inevitable that any human intervention resulting in destruction of an ecological space or its transformation is apt to affect adversely these who have hitherto been dependent on that space for sustenance. What one finds in India now is a growing conflict over the use of natural resources between the cash economy and non-moneytised bio-mass based substance economy, . Projects are undertaken without social economic and ecological impact assessment and without understanding their livelihood of cutting across the needs of the dependant population. Rather consideration of export and other income generating ventures influence the planning of various projects. Government programme of afforestation for example in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh by massive cultivation of olive trees besides being totally unrelated to the needs of the local population has eroded pasture and other common village land . In all mining areas and areas where land comes under submergence on account of irrigation / hydroelectric projects as in the past in respect of Hirakud Dam and now in respect of Sardar Sarovar etc , the tendency has always been to treat the affected people impediments in the process of development to be removed at minimum cost..The same has been the case in respect of projects in the private sector -from Orient Paper Mills to TATA’s new steel venture at Gopalpur in Orissa .(5)
Thus in India genocide has been inherent in the process of economic growth , buttressed by the notion that development consists only of increasing industrialisation, commercialisation , consumerism and synthesisation with no comprehension of the need to base development on environmentally sound principles, as well as those social and economic equity .(6) And the poor inspite of having great stakes in the continued well being of precious environmental resources for their sustenance have had no say on shaping the development policies and plans .
(The Population Dilemma)
India stands out in the rate of population growth that has placed enormous pressures on all life-support systems – land , water, flora and fauna and the atmosphere. At the current rate of growth India faces the thirty prospect of doubling of the population within the next half century. And it has been easy to blame the increasing population for nullifying the gains the country achieved through post – independence economic development programmes and for increasing environment destructions.
It is a fact that the continued proliferation of the poor inhibiting the villages and slums in a need based country like India with diminishing share in natural resources has led to an extraordinarily intensive use of resources ; heavy lopping of trees, over grazing, cultivation of marginal lands, reduced fallow periods while at the same time, the rich few even though not dependant on the resources of the eco-system live on an extensive use of natural resources force the poor into a situation of exploitation of their environment.
The human carrying capacity of supporting eco systems are not unlimited. Even though the knowledge of the carrying capacity of India’s land is not clearly determined, it is nevertheless estimated that with known technology India is in a position to feed atleast two billion more people . ‘Feeding a growing…………population……. is technologically feasible . But the economic and environmental cost incurred through bolstering food production may well prove too great……… The course of events will depend crucially on Government’s ability to design and enforce effective policies that address the challenges posed by mounting human numbers, rising poverty and environmental degradation……. the task ahead will be made more difficult if population growth rate can’t be reduced’.(7)
The present approach to curb population growth is lopsided , mere diversionary techniques to cover the major efforts in the fields of sophisticated curative services . The so-called ‘more of the same’ approach ignores the political socio-economic and cultural factors . Population growth and its attendants ills are the results of disturbing slow growth of Literacy and Science and Technology . If utilised with due circumspection the same Science and Technology can provide the miliue for controlling the population growth without disturbing country’s resources and ecology. For one, providing education, especially to women, adequate health services and remunerative employment to meet basic needs is the most effective and more humane method of population control as has been successfully demonstrated in Kerala. But much remains undone.
( Forests, Deforestation and Bio-diversity)
Among the environmental issues deforestation in India has attracted maximum concern . Inspite of having big land mass of 329 million hectares, the per capita forest land in India is only 0.09 hectares and decreasing rapidly against the world average of 1.0 hectares. The biotic pressures on forests has increased along with demand for food leading to large scale deforestation . Besides , due to expanding industrialisation , urbanisation , relating to growing population, illegal cutting of forests and uncontrolled grazing the forest cover is getting reduced and now stands far below than the ideal 33.33 % , held by ecologist that the country should have to maintain a resemblance of precious ecological balance and preserve bio-diversity in its natural element . The forest cover, despite massive afforestation programmes and tight Government regulation on projects, now stands at a paltry 22 % of the total land area including degraded forest land with less than 40 % crown density and srubland. The dense forest cover stands at about 2 % only . Loss of forests has led to waste lands, erosion of fertile soil, floods, drastic lowering of water table increasing the water requirements of cultivable soil and global warming . It has drastically affected the bio-diversity and put tremendous pressures on native communities who have been traditionally dependant on forests for sustenance.
Deforestation, has entailed social, cultural and economic disruption of tribal population. Government control over forests has meant a reallocation of forest resources away from the needs of local communities and into the hands of the urban and industrial India resulting in increasing social conflict .Pampered by subsidies forest based industries have only concentrated on making quick profit, in the process wiping out their own resource base through over-exploitation . The Western Ghats stand mute witness to this crazy competition , the hill tracts in Western Mahasrashtra having suffered the most . In many parts only the remnants of the prestine rain forests survive. Forest authorities all over , have been taking a narrow view of the resources, totally ignoring the value of forests in performing eco-system services or as store house of genetic resources.
The social and ecological benefits of a healthy forests cover can hardly be over emphasized . Besides maintaining soil and water condition , forests contribute to the maintenance of biological / genetic diversity, provide fuel fodder and other materials for local communities, supply wood and raw material for industry, provide non-wood forest produce for local and national economy. The list never ends.
India boasts of the strictest of legislation to safeguard forest against explantation. However, lack of political will has helped be unscrupulous industry and over-jealous bureaucracy to take advantage of the loopholes leading to a liquidation of the country’s base of natural resources including its heritage of biological diversity. The biggest grey area is what is coming under ‘denotification’ of forests under the Wild Life (protection) Act, 1972, the only law that has been preventing successfully, forests being encroached upon , and under which core area has to be left without any human intervention to protect endangered plant and animal life . What has happened in Gujrat and Maharashtra show that once industry or tourist resorts are allowed to locate near- or in protected area , other transgressions can’t be prevented . Result – the inevitable end of these precious resources which ensure not just the survival of wild species of flora fauna, but also replenish water resources and provide food security for future generation by protecting wild genetic material. The same has been the experience with other projects like Sardar Sarovar, Konkan Railways, East Coast Road etc.
The prime resource from forests, is not timber as is commonly accepted , but water. Forest felling reduces the earth’s ability to retain water. This, with faulty use of the country’s plains, is the root cause of the increased incidence and intensity of floods and draughts every year as well as the under performance of many irrigation projects which make a shamble of the economic projections of the country. The following list is representative of the character of our planning projects with consequential impacts on the natural habitation which largely is the outcome of misuse of the Wild Life [Protection ] Act by denotification.
01.The exquisite Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary in Gujrat is ripped up by Lime Stone mines.
02. Almost one-third of Melaghat Tiger Reserve is being sacrificed to big business, large dams and timber contractors.
03. The Bhitara Kanika Sanctuary in the Orissa State is falling prey to the trawler operators.
04.The core of Radha Nagar Bison Sancturary of Maharashtra is being eyed by Indian Aluminium Company for Buxite mining.
05. Sariska is being ripped by Mines.
06. The Reliance Group is lobbying to denotify Gujrat’s Pirotas Marine Park to build a Oil Refinery.
07. In Andaman Islands , almost every industrial group is trying for the proposed free port.
08. Around Bastar’s Indravati Tiger Reserve, iron ore mining and rampant Government sponsored deforestation cripple a fabulous forest.
09. In the Manas Tiger Reserve, Bodo Millitants are looting the forest by sale of valuable timber and by permitting Rihnos to be killed for the value of their horns .(8)
The question being asked around : why save wildlife in a country where people are starving . There are powerful arguments which go beyond the mere necessity of preservation of endangered species . Using animals, nature plants its own forests, grasslands and wetlands that are the crucibles of human civilisation . Animals are part of a larger web of life . Protection for even a choosen few large denizens of the wild may bring other gains in its tow. To save the tiger, monsoon forests are to be protected . The rhino needs its share of mud wallow and grassland to survive . Each of these habitats has a critical role to play in the cycles that bind together the soils, the water and flora .(9) Whereas, apart from their ability to plant forests, no animal, other than homo-sapiens possesses the technology to destroy forests . At the current rate of destruction, the earth could well loose almost twenty-five percent of the 1.4 million species of flora and fauna . The loss of this bio-diversity might prove to be a greater threat than the termo-nuclear war. The mangroves on the Indian coasts , for example are the nurseries of the seas . Assault from pollution and deforestation may well affect the renewable fish catch .Deforestation moreover, has threatened the Indian valleys representing some of the country’s most fertile farmlands and most productive forests with submergence . Similar fate is also meted out to hill slopes . Net result is that without access to genetic material, found only in remote habitats , it would almost be difficult to prevent plant diseases from wiping out the domesticated food varieties leading ultimately to mass starvation in not so distant future.
The importance of forests as sinker of carbon dioxide or to the tribals and other native dwellers for basic livelihood has never been understood in India. The cardinal weakness of the forest management to date , lie in the failure to specify the competing claims on forest and forest produce and to prescribe methods of meeting those demands consistent with environmental sustainability and social justice.(10) Instead there has been an assignation of overlapping , often conflicting functions to unitary forest department that has been the prime factor behind deforestation . Today, as satellite imageries reveal loss of forest on an average of 1.3 million hectares per year, and a consequent loss of top soil equivalent to 30 to 50 millions tons of foodgrains a year and as dams are stilting at much faster rate than envisaged due to the runoff from deforested hill sides, a shift away from state monopoly becomes an essential precondition for fulfilling both ecological and livelihood security .
Unplanned mining has led to deforestation , disturbance of the drainage pattern, disturbance to the local inhabitants and their habitats , noise dust and air-pollution as well as the pollution of the water sources , lowering the water table , zonal subsidence , loss of soil fertility besides health hazards both to the workers and the local inhabitants. (11) More than half the national mining comes from 40 contiguous districts of Central and Eastern India , the tribal heartland . Several hectares of good crop and forest lands have been destroyed in this tract by mining operations and hundred of villages have been depopulated .(12)
Callous industry and a succession of uncaring Governments with irrational industrial policies are responsible for a host of environment related problems, from displacement to all round pollution . Years of intensive industrialisation has put enormous pressure on country’s cultivated as well as forest land since nearly half of India’s industrial output is accounted for by industries which are bio-mass based – cotton , textiles , rayon paper, ply wood , rubber, soap, sugar, tobacco, jute, chocolate, food processing , packaging , etc . But that is only the half of the story .
Every year industries across the country , discharge enough solid and hazardous waste to fill a pit one meter deep across ninety six square kilometers . Industries contribute more than a third of poisons that pour into India’s water systems , stretches of innumerable rivers around industries today are devoid of life . Effluents untreated and allegedly treated have increased levels of toxins like Cyanide and Chromium upto twenty times the safe levels in country’s twenty-two critically polluted areas . The ground water in these areas contains a smorgous board of toxic material . Margins of safety are routinely exceeded in multiples of ten . Wastes from poisonous coal ash to toxic sludge of nearly hundred millions tones every year are being dumped on public land that thereafter, leeches into the fewer water people drink and mingles with the air people breathe .
More than one hundred and sixty-five large industrial complexes out of a total of one thousand five hundred and fifty-one , today , fail to meet environmental standards . More damaging is the waste from more than three million small scale units .
Respiratory ailments have more than doubled in all the major cities of the country.
In the past three years, more than ten thousand industries nationwide are either shutdown , asked to move out of the cities or given ultimatums to clean up , mostly by courts . Corporate India is being dragged to the alter of pollution control and it is about time .
Government’s philosophy of development is responsible for this sad state of affairs. While the planners ignored the concerns for the environment , irrational industrial policies have been making a mockery of the environmental requirements . Industries were encouraged in areas without any concern for the pollution load factors of land and water and in sectors i.e. small-scale where providing pollution control equipment is uneconomical . Even otherwise, most of the pollution-control equipments are often useless . Industries shutdown ill maintained effluent treatment units for ‘ when margins are squeezed pollution control equipment in a prime target for cuttingly costs .(13)
While most effluent treatment units can be fixed within five to fifteen percent of the total cost in industries like paper, for down manufacturers of consumer electric goods and printed circuit boards , the cost can be as high as twenty-five to forty percent of the total involvement . Pollution control systems in power stations can cost as high as Rupees one crore for every megha watt .
The regulatory agencies of the Government i.e. Pollution Control Boards are ill equipped to fight pollution . They are not involved in making industrial policy and they are both numerically and technically unable to enforce the laws against pollution.
There used to be no such things as industrial zones . As and when they are formed , connivance from regulatory agencies did not stop industries being set up in residential areas – immigrants setting up plastic units in the refugee camps as in Ulashnagar, Mumbai in the 1950s and Units in Delhi residential areas that have been asked by the courts to move out . ‘ Delhi is becoming a giant factory ’.(14)
Agriculture (Green Revolution / Hybrid Seeds / Pesticides And Chemicals. )
During the heydays of the ‘Green Revolution’ India achieved spectacular increase food crops and helped herself out of a food trap through a combination of genetic manipulation and chemical inputs . However, the environmental costs of such technological advances have been enormous mostly stemming from abuse of pesticides and use of persistent plant protection chemicals . As pests become resistant to pesticides , the use of stronger and more harmful chemicals was necessitated . Indiscriminate use of pesticides led to pollution of soil and emergence of more virulent pests . Good agricultural lands experienced serious loss of soil nutrients . The chemicals tended to make their way through the food chain into people , affecting health .
Today , India’s daily intake of pesticide residues in food is among the highest in the world , the residue levels in crop samples from grain-rich Punjab are among the highest in the Country . Surveys by research institutions have found pesticide residues in milk exceeding tolerance levels . Mother’s milk too is found to belts be contaminated . Widespread malpractices make Indian vegetable suffer from a pesticide overload .
Insecticides such as Carbofuran are used to hasten fruiting . Parathion is sprayed to give brinjal a fresh look . All most all studies in India show high levels of contaminations in cereals – wheat rice or maze . Same is the case in respect of fruits .
Precious little is being done to prevent the misuse as the Ministry of Agriculture promotes the use of pesticides to prevent crop losses because of damage by pests is estimated to be six thousand crores and account for a short fall of atleast twenty percent of India’s total production . Although the ministry , after much pressure , has banned the use of the DDT for agriculture in 1972 , there is no check to prevent its misuse by farmers . Efforts to promote integrated pest management techniques with a mixture of traditional practices and limited use of pesticides have been too small and lackadaisical to have had major impact . Much of India’s cultivable land has already been rendered toxic and it will take years for the pesticides to degenerate into harmless substances .
There are many controversies and conflicts surrounding irrigation systems in India and the dam culture that sustains it . Apart from involuntary displacement , the environmental and financial wastage that the system procreates are the object of such controversies . Few surface water irrigation projects covering big and medium sized dams are being completed in time resulting in the tardy growth and utilisation of the irrigation potential . A poor choice of projects and inadequate attention to drainage has resulted in water logging and salinity rendering previous cultivable land infertile . Over exploration of ground water both for irrigation and drinking water has led to a sharp fall in water table, threatening the very availability of water resources for future generation .
India’s river system once symbols of purity and life are now foul receptables of sewage and toxic waste leading to loss of marine ecology , incidence of disease and death . The prime villains in the sad saga are callous industries and municipal administrations that discharge untreated sewage / effluents . Deforestation looseness the soil and sands in avalanches of sediment reducing the flow of water . Indian rivers carry five percent of the world’s river water but -five percent of all the sediments that go to the ocean . Besides , construction of barrages dams and canals have drastically cut down the water flows with disastrous consequences .
Many of India’s large cities grew on river which supplied much needed water as well as provided easy channel for waste disposal . The capacity and efficacy of the rivers for flushing out effluents has collapsed under the pressure of burgeoning population . As the rivers wither away, millions who depend on them for livelihood are finding their way of life changing , worse, finding their lives in peril . Each of the thirteen great river system making up eighty percent of total surface water and home to nearly eighty-five percent of the population is so polluted mainly in stretches near towns and industrial that bacteria feeding on wastes are the only things that have proliferated between twenty to one thousand times over the safe levels . Contaminated water has given rise to the incidence of water born diseases . Fish have died by the millions throwing out traditional fishermen from their occupation . River water laced with industrial toxins is irrigating farmland .
Seas of waste portend an ecological disaster as industries and Government conspire to by-pass Coastal Regulation Laws . Unchecked dumping of wastes into the seas has been a major threat to marine life . India’s seven thousand five hundred kilometer long coastline has been a crucible of life . But unceasing flows of sewage and industrial wastes are destroying fishing and killing entire biological communities . The mangroves along the creeks and estuaries once the filters for pollutants and nurseries for fish are now being lost to developers slums and industries which pour treated and untreated waters into it , killing marine life and contaminating fish .
In terms of absolute number urban residents make India one of the largest in the world . While urbanisation in India has impacted well on the income level employment and production economics , it has also brought in its own problems of housing , inadequate water supply, sanitation and waste disposal facilities , congestion , traffic problem , air water and noise pollution as well as unsafe social environment . So much so that Indian cities have become inherently unsustainable in environmental terms .
Municipal bodies all over can no longer cope with urban India’s piles of garbage with cities churning out enough garbage everyday to fill up trucks lined bumber to bumper for nearly three hundred kilometers . Only eight of India’s three thousand one hundred nineteen towns and cities have full waste water collection and treatment facilities , another two hundred and nine having partial treatment plants . A third of India’s urban population have no access to sanitation services . A third of eight thousand tons of garbage everyday is left unattended festing and sinking , becoming breeding grounds for diseases . The solid waste management system in all cities are primitive outdated and inefficient . Combined with a slothful municipal administration Indian cities are not in a position to cope with growth in urban population , new and newer kinds of trash . In metropolitan cities in India , the air one breathes is so harmful today that one may as well be smoking between ten to twenty cigarettes every day . A World Bank report reveals that more than forty-thousand people die prematurely in India because of air pollution ‘ We (Indians) are being subjected to slow murder ’.(15)
India’s metropolitan vehicular population has roughly tripled since 1990 , a direct result of the failure of the mass transport systems , The automobile exhausts account for sixty-five percent of air pollution in all cities . The unrestrained and often illegal spread of urban industries , most without pollution control devices of any kind also Poisson the air . ‘ If things are left as they are today , the air in (Indian) cities will be totally unbreathable’ .(16) By the year 2001 , carbon monoxide emissions are expected to rise seven times and hydrocarbons manifold . Other major pollutants will go up . Indian automobile fuel is of poor quality and contains sulpher which does not burn , despite the best of combustion engines . Unfortunately also India has been lagging behind the developed countries in technology upgradation as well as generation of awareness about the extent of the harm caused by vehicular pollution . Out-dated technology , poor maintenance , erratic driving , poor traffic management , a soaring number of new and old vehicles and inefficient road net-work has turned Indian cities into choking dens of smoke and pollution . And , though it took years of wrangling and haggling until emission control standards of vehicles become law in April, 1996 the norms are lower than planned , largely due to pressures from the auto industry .
Adding to the respiration woes of the urbanite Indian , is the noise pollution the main sources of which are automobiles, railways, aircraft, machines and sirens in industrial areas, public address systems , social and religious activities etc . In all cities the country over the average noise levels are in excess of prescribed standards both during day and night .
Environment Problems As Source Of Social And Political Conflict And Violence.
The environmental degradation and its impact on people especially those affected has already been discussed . It is, therefore, not surprising that all most all the developmental / industrial ventures, be in the public or in private sectors, are met with stiff resistance . The current ongoing controversies over Sardar Sarovar Dam on Narmada , the Kankan Railways, the East-Coast Road , the Tehri Dam and more recently over TATA’s proposed steel venture in Gopalpur, Orissa intensive shrimp farming along the entire coast , Enron project in Maharashtra etc . are but expressions of concern against possible deleterious impact on ecology and against dislocation . The protests also emphasise that all development projects must incorporate environmental and social concerns in the process of planning design and implementation .
It is a fact that community objections to development or policies that affect ecology or bio-diversity are essentially expressions of concern for livelihood . The process , nevertheless , helps preservation of precious natural resources .
One of the major concerns is displacement especially involuntary displacement . It is the cost of structural adjustment devolving from projects that is being thrust upon the people directly affected . In socio-ecological parlance , displacement can be explained as a consequence of the struggle for the control of the natural resources – a consequence of the transition of these resources from being the life-support system of the community and from an informal economy to industrial and corporate ownership of the formal capitalist economy .(17) In India , the incidence of displacement has been fairly high given the number and magnitude of multipurpose irrigation , industrial and mining projects especially in high tribal concentrations in the Eastern and Central Indian states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh , Orissa and West Bengal.
Consequences of forced displacement in India varied depending upon the social economic and cultural factors of the displaced persons .(!8) It has affected the social system resulting in the disorganisation of the community , collapse of kinship groups , family system and informal social net work . Even with rehabilitation , displacement remained for the affected , a traumatic experience with serious psychological , physical and socio-cultural consequences . Plagued by the ‘ grieving for a lost home syndrome ’ the oustees found to have gone through the anxiety concerning the unknown future and the feeling of helplessness at one’s inability to protect one’s home and the community from disruption .(19) Forced abandonment of symbolic objects and places such as ancestral shrines and graves , mountains , water courses and trails have severed the oustee s’ psychological linkages with past and snapped the roots of their cultural identity(20) . Illness and morbidity rates have been very high during the transition period that have even continued for a number of years following relocation(21) . The cessation of a range of economic , social and religious activities which were tied to the oustees’ old habitat has broken the community into factions with loss of leadership in traditional authority and management systems (22) .
The pattern of resettlement and rehabilitation have always been deficient and studies reveal that fewer than twenty-five percent of the persons displaced by development projects were rehabilitated properly . Post independent India continued with the British system of cash compensation to the oustees without taking into account the socio-cultural consequences of displacement upto the eighties in respect of projects in irrigation power and road construction . This had the inevitable demerit of making the displaced economically vulnerable , as cash was often used on immediate social obligations rather than on creation of long-term productive assets(23) .
In majority of projects , the displaced persons were compelled to change their occupational pattern and on the face of official apathy, they have found their own coping mechanisms , invariably of a destructive nature both to themselves and the environment . This pattern has always been found to be present in almost all irrigation projects . Case studies in respect of a few of multipurpose irrigation projects throw light on the pathetic levels of depredation that the displaced have been subjected to .
Hirakud Dam – Orissa : After the construction began, complexity began to creep into the system of the traditional occupation beyond the comprehension of illiterate tribals and villagers with the result that they became increasingly vulnerable to exploitation . Most of the oustees were reduced to a state of landlessness . The rehabilitation involved clearing up vast areas of rich forests, reclaiming land for cultivation . But the extremely limited resources of the region put restrictions on the availability of alternative occupation (24) .
This continued trail of hardship and suffering has been so deeply etched in the minds of the oustees that a recent announcement of the construction of the 320 MW hydel project with three giants size barrages across river Mahanadi near Hirakud Dam has met with strong resentment and protests.
Ukai Dam : The resettlement and rehabilitation of the population displaced reveal an almost complete lack of approach and inadequate response of the Government . In the absence of a well planned policy the implementation were callous and half-hearted . The ignorance about the human and environmental consequences of involuntary resettlement on the part of the policy makers, planners and bureaucrats has been conspicuously present (25) .
Pong Dam : The post-rehabilitation scenario has been marked by sporadic protests because of absence of an alternative plan for resettlement . To put it in the words of one of the oustees of the project : ” What have we got ? Children of many ousted families have only learnt to graze cattle . The latter generation will be even worse off . If Government goes on building dams like this, then the poor and backward people will die .”(26)
A study by Lokayan on Srisailem Multi-purpose Project reveals that there has been a tremendous change in the life style and occupation of the oustees – percentage of large / medium and small farmers decreased with many of the owner-cultivators becoming agricultural labourers . In Bethdi Hydro Electric Project in Karnataka , large number of families once dependent upon forests which they did not own , were left to themselves to find alternative employment . In many cases the oustees have became bonded labourers and daily wage earners under timber contractors and smugglers (27) .
The tussle over the future of the Sardar Sarovar Project continue to remain in the public eye, the protest movement being spearheaded by the Narmada Bachhao Andolan gaining in strength . Madhya Pradesh Government’s demand to lower the height of the dam in order to cut on submergence and renewed discussions on the power component of the multi-purpose project and its economic soundness has added to the apprehensions of ecological disaster of a massive type .
Besides , the ecological cost of the displacement have been enormous . The disturbance in the bio-diversity entailed by displacement and consequent eco-imbalance have impacted heavily on the traditional life pattern . The indigenous groups are being completely swamped by the immigrants and their resource base and means of livelihood eroded by depletion of natural resources . The environmentally harmonious ‘eco-system people’ are being faced with a situation of potential conflict over a limited resource base on the arrival on ecological refugees from alien eco-systems displaced due to destruction of their means of sustenance . Both sets are further threatened by the uncontrolled resources manipulation of the bio-sphere people . The eco-system people in their natural habitat have always had a tradition of prudent resources use and evolved indigenous methods to adopt to the spatial and tempered variations in the environment . Advent of modern commerce along with the demands of development projects have taken away the control over their resource base due to over explanation and depletion . Basket weavers were forced out of their eco-system when bamboo- the source of their livelihood – disappeared with the advent of commercialisation . The nomadic sephards were left in the lurch when traditional grazing grounds were either been brought under the plough or converted to plantations . Years of planned growth with unplanned management of natural resources and the eco system has seen to it that today the country’s resource base is primarily devoted to meet the ever growing needs of the bio-sphere people having access to the resource of the bio-sphere through market mechanism .
The destruction of the environment has posed serious threat to marginal cultures and occupations – tribals nomads, fisherfolk , the worst affected being women forced as they are in foraging around for fuel fodder and water that became rarer . It is almost as if all development is ignorant is women’s need at best , and anti-women at worst , literally designed to increase their work burden . With deforestation , penetration of cash economy and male-migration , the women, in all rural cultures especially in poor landless marginal and small farm families have literally reached the end of their carrying capacities . No wonder , therefore , that the so called illiterate women , the prime movers of the Chikpo movement, are first to grasp with intuitive ease , the elemental truth that natural resources are as precious as life .
Nature’s children- the tribals, forestry for them being as important a pursuit as agriculture , have suffered a great deal on account of massive erosion of forest resources at the behest of industry , irrigation and urbanisation .
Displacement thus , is an off-shot of the present pattern of development-sophisticated and technology based and capital intensive geared , mainly to the profit of the corporate owner (28) . It is a pattern , where technical aspects of the projects are worked out meticulously , the nature of displacement and of rehabilitation of financial requirements thereof are often underestimated. Discontent of the oustees is the inevitable outcome what with no participation or share in the benefits of the projects that displaces them . Hardship and resentment have often been the source of disruption , for as the oustees have to re-establish themselves with resources they are likely to complain and protest with ever greater frequency .
The most vociferous amongst the protests against environmentally destructive policies of the government have been the Narmada Bachao Andolan opposing the construction of multi-purpose project on Narmada River . What began as a campaign for better rehabilitation for over a lakh of oustees spread across Gujurat , Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh , has crystallised into a movement against large dams across the country and centered on questioning the direction of a development policy which does not weigh the benefits and costs of projects for the people affected . In respect of Tehri Dam in Gharwals the Tehri Bandh Virodhi Samiti protested against the safety of the project after a massive earthquake measuring 6.1 on the ritcher scale shook the entire region . The Koel Karo Dam in Bihar lying in the tribal heartland of Jhrkhand area witnessed the refusal of tribal oustees led by Jharkhand Mukti Morcha to move from the area marked for submergence . There has been resistance to several thermal – Dahnau near Bombay – and nuclear power projects – Narora , Kakrapara and Kaiga . Even though in almost all cases the protesters have lost , the protests themselves have drawn the attention to the destructive aspects of development which permits the location of a polluting power plant in an ecologically fragile area .
All protests , however , are not environment oriented strictly . People may be resisting displacement from their land on which they have survived so far and not necessarily conscious of the negative aspect of the project . But the resistance itself has made them appreciate their environment which they have earlier taken for granted .
The official attitude has always been that India can’t afford the luxury of environmental protection underscoring the need to develop forests build roads , provide schools , hospitals , electricity and transportation for people including the tribals . The standard response of the Government therefore, has been containment and localisation of discontent , offering only to ensure that obstacles to development are speedily and cheaply removed . Expediency rather than moral constitutional and humanitarian considerations count . The displaced , despite sporadic protests are typically reduced to helplessness . While the need for irrigation and power projects roads and railways have never been disputed by the protestees , what gets emphasised is the fact that such projects must incorporate environmental and social concerns in the process of the planning and designing .
The need, therefore, is to undertake resettlement and rehabilitation and operations for the displaced population with a view to help restore their life style without affecting social , economic and cultural characteristics . It is imperative to adopt an integrated approach to resettlement and rehabilitation encompassing employment in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors , health , education , housing , transport and communication , environmental protection and creation of institutions which would sustain the development of the area and rehabilitated households . Rehabilitating displaced tribal households would entail guidance on selection of rewarding occupations . It will also be essential to insulate them from cultural shock arising out of displacement from native land .
In a significant development , World Bank has formally advocated a ‘land for land’ resettlement plan rather than cash compensation for the displaced . This is based on a World Bank report which analysed the psychology of the rural resettlement process in respect of involuntary displacement and found cases of monetary compensation largely fruitless . It found that the economies of many village groups were often disturbed as people were not accustomed to handling large amounts of cash . The liberal cash compensation were not utilised for productive investment as it was typically inadequate.(29)
The Government which owns , controls and develops India’s forests , dams , power stations , roads , mines and large part of its of industry instead of being the protector has now emerged as the most dreaded destroyer of the country’s environment . It has been found to be insensitive to the impact of environmental degradation on lives of women tribals , nomads , fisher folk and others who depend on the environment for survival . The Department Of Environment – the government’s main instrument for creating an eco-consciousness both within the government and outside appears to lack responsiveness , independence , innovativeness and real power. As a whole, environmental consciousness does not seem to exist in government policies and programmes at best it exists only at the highest level – the Prime Minister and the specialised departments (30) .
The Departments of Forest , Irrigation , Public Works and Industry concerned with environmental protection and promotion are often blind to environmental issues(31) . For example , the Social Forestry projects with considerable international funding support have completely distorted the outlook of the Department of Forests ; with a strong tendency to resist any criticism that the policies may be unsound and harmful i.e. emphasis on plantation of trees like eucalyptus . The Department of Irrigation continues to construct irrigation headworks and distribution channels without taking fully into account the damage to the soil through water logging . There appears to be no attempts to ensure that irrigation projects are sanctioned only with adequate technical and financial provision for prevention of damage to soil and environment . The Department of Industry continues to be unmindful of environmental issues and impacts on the environment of the industry location . The industrial promotional and development agencies themselves , have not been acting as watchdogs of the environment interests . To top the list is the fact that most of the environment related decisions are enacted by those sections of the Government which are already innocuous or whose knowledge about interest in environment is more of academic interest . This outlook myopia can be understood from the fact that an official in Delhi uses a shirt made of cotton grown in the fields of Maharashtra heavily sprayed with pesticides leading to multiple resistance in mosquitoes , uses electricity from a dam in the Himalayas that has destroyed forests and blocked migration of fish , writes on paper produced in Madhya Pradesh by a factory that has polluted the local river and logged forests in an ever-widening circle disrupting the life of tribals , eats cereals from Punjab produced using a technology that drain soil fertility and so on .
What India needs is an independent , innovative, quick-responsive organisation with overall responsibility and matching authority to coordinate and supervise all activities in the country having bearing on the environment (32) . The beginning should however be from a desire to implement various laws and regulations strictly . Formulation and implementation of comprehensive policies , opening up of the information network , greater sympathetic understanding of the views and cultures of affected persons and rejection of a unidirectional path to development are few of the other imperatives of the day (33) .
As bio-diversity and environment are inter related , there is also a need for conservation of total biological heritage of the subcontinent which shall include cultivated varieties of the traditional crops, indigenous strains of domesticated animals , tribal life styles and expertise of traditional artisans in addition to natural eco-systems . Bio-sphere reserves can be set up as buffer zones between plantations and natural forests to shield the latter from the destabilizing influences and exploitative pressures of the latter . In the long run when the people come to enjoy the tangible benefits of the protecting nature through participatory effort they will be truly convinced of the need to protect the bio-sphere(34) . It would not be out of place here to mention India’s obligation to promote in in-situ conservations of national living resources in their natural habitat as per the Bio-diversity Convention . Article 8 of the Convention requires that a system plan based on surveys of bio-diversity be worked out at the national level in such a way as to ensure that the protected area network is indeed truely representative of the range and diversity of each country’s flora and fauna and their natural habitat . In India , where the pressure on land is particularly intense and growing , the point of departure for a new conservation strategy would essentially be an appraisal and evaluation of the existing protected area net work .
It is felt that the ‘eco-system people and the ecological refugees’ must have their resources they need from environment they are familiar with . If empowered , they could well work towards sustainable resource use . The attempts in this direction- village forest protection committees in West Bengal and in Orissa have been found to be highly encouraging as models for the joint forest management schemes(35) . Thus , the current system of centralised bureaucratic apparatus must be replaced with a decentralised system of decision making in which local communities are vested with public funds to use for natural resource development . For this purpose, the reorganised Panchayati Raj system in India should be used as an ideal launching pad . This decentralised grassroot administrative apparatus need to be linked to programmes like ‘Land and Water Literacy Programme’ initiated in four districts by Bharatiya Gyan Vigyan Samiti as part of post literacy activity’. The programme which visualised involvement of people from local communities in mapping land , water , vegetation , habitation , etc. can be used in problem areas such as gully erosion , water pollution , ground water depletion and invasion of weeds in a highly site-specific fashion to help deciding on appropriate developmental intervention(36) .
A number of enactments both at the national and state level regulating some or other aspect in respect of environment have been in existence in India . But specific laws to control environmental degradation have been slow in coming , partly because of inadequate appreciation of environmental problems and partly because of wrong notions about legislative competence . The country today has a good number of laws , some the toughest in the world to deal with issues concerning environment – the Wild Life (Conservation) Act, 1972 , the Water ( Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and 1977, the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, the Indian Forest Act, 1972 and the like . The Bhopal incidence, 1984 exposed the Government to the inadequacies of those legislations in containment of environmental degradation . As a Government of India Committee pointed out :- ‘May environmental laws are outdated ………Environment legislations lacked statements of explicit policy objectives…….are mutually inconsistent….. lack adequate provisions for helping the implementing machinery . The Government of India thereafter brought in the Environment Protection Act, 1986 which brought hazardous substances under its preview .
But , despite a plethora of environmental laws constitutional directives and setting up of Pollution Control Boards all over the country , the success in curbing environmental degradation has been quite negligible . The weakest link in country’s regulatory mechanisms is the loose administrative arrangements for monitoring and enforcing environmental standards . This with lack of commitment and enthusiasm of governments to achieve better standards has left enactments virtually toothless . Major reason for this lack of success has been the conventional regulatory approach . Many a times political and other factors prevent enforcement of pollution standards .
Environment laws are part of social legislation and they call for active participation and commitment from all concerned (37) . There is therefore , a need to supplement the regulatory mechanism with economic instruments like pollution charges subsidies , enforcement incentives , marketable permits and deposit / return schemes etc. The advantages are several the major thrust being development of cost effective technologies to reduce pollution and generate revenue to finance monitoring and enforcement cost . Example : the increase in energy cost with low interest loans from financial institutions that has led to a large scale adoption of membrane technology in the manufacture of costic soda .
Similarly it is also necessary to make Environment Impact Assessment study compulsory for all projects especially highly polluting industries as has been done in respect of all industries covered by Water and Air Pollution Acts as well as those covered by hazardous wastes handling acts .
It is imperative that industrial operations are given retrospective scrutiny . The techno- economics of projects need to take in to account the physio-chemical-biological matrices of environment as well as all living beings within , trees included . Energy efficient, resources effective , waste controlled , pollution free , occupationally safe production techniques are the requirements of the day . ‘ the social responsibilities of ….. industrial enterprises should now extend even beyond serving people , to the environment (J.R.D. TATA) . Preventive environment management rather than the end of the pipe cleaning approach must guide industrial policies and ventures. Industries need to emulate environment management system that held comply environmental policies and better management technologies and human and financial resources. I.S.O. 14,000 series for example is extended to provide standardisation in environment management. I.S.O. 14001 contents requirements that aim to achieve continuos improvements in emission standards waste management committing corporates to environment policies for sustainable socio economic development .
The only silver lining in the entire gamut of environmental legislation and enforcement has been the initiative and pivotal role taken up by the Courts in India especially the Supreme Court of India in laying down foundation of environmental jurisprudence. In a spate of cases brought through public interest litigations the Courts have taken upon themselves the task of expanding the article 21 of the Indian Constitution by interpreting that right to Life includes Right to live in a healthy environment . The judgement of the Andhra Pradesh High Court in Damodar Rao Vs. S.O. Municipal Corporation, Hydarabad , the Court rulled that the enjoyment of life and its attainments and fulfillment guaranteed by the Article 21 of the Constitution embraces the protection and preservation of natures gifts without which life can not be enjoyed . The slow poisoning caused by environmental pollution should also be regarded as violation of Article 21 . Expanding on the idea further , The Supreme Court of India in a case in respect of quarries in Dehradun observed that preservation of the environment and keeping the ecological balance unaffected is a task which not only Governments but also every citizen must undertake . It is also the social obligation and every citizen is reminded that it is his fundamental duty as enshrined in Article 51 A (g) of the Constitution . In M.C. Meheta Vs. Union of India involving gas leak in Delhi the Supreme Court not only widened the scope of Article 21 by including in it the protection of environment but also created a liability in tort for those harmed by pollution . It laid down the principle that industry carrying hazardous and inherently dangerous activities that are a threat to security of those living around it owed a strict and absolute liability and non-delegable duty to the community to ensure that no accident of occur. If accident do occur the enterprise has an absolute liability to compensate those affected by it . The social cost for carrying on such hazardous activities for profit is a legal presumption that the industry will compensate . It also directed District Collectors to ensure exhibition of slides on environmental pollution in cinema halls and video parlours as condition for issuing license and Door Darshan and A I R to produce programmes with messages on environment to generate awareness . Education Boards are directed to enforce compulsory education on environment at school / college level . It desired the Government to set up environment courts for speedy disposal of problems relating to health , sanitation , water , land and air quality and industrial nuisance .
Though the judicial process is fast emerging as an important forum to seek remedial justice in India against environmentally hazardous activity there is need to evolve an enlightened public opinion . Initiative of a handful of public spirited concerned individuals and groups and a watchful judiciary might have shaken the Government from apathy in implementing the laws while its own agencies slept . But the fact remains that legal and bureaucratic means can not bring permanent solutions to human problems. Community incentives in dealing with environmental problems not only represent the best of democratic traditions in India but also suggest the direction that Government policy ought to decide how best to use and conserve the natural resources .
A development process that needs to be in harmony with the environment ultimately demands a new culture . This is the area in which voluntary agencies has emerged in India , as the harbringers of change . ‘The non-governmental organisations have given the environment it dynamism and vigour’(38) . In fact , the growth of people’s movements on environmental issues have been a marked feature in recent years . The agencies especially those working at the grassroot level , have taken over the responsibility of bringing about an eco-consciousness and have been playing a pioneering role in developing alternate models of equitable and sustainable use of natural resources built around people’s participation and control . Given India’s reasonably open society , the Government is not in a position to ignore the voluntary sector even though may a times their programmes of action are in conflict with government policies .
The perception and activities of the agencies have been varied from an emphasis on the need to conserve and protect the natural environment (conservationists) at the one end to concern for the environment within the overall frame work of development policy as only sustainable and equitable on the other . There are groups that oppose all modern technology and development considering them inherently destructive . Others advocate alternate models that meet the needs of both the growing modern economy and an increasingly fragile eco-system . While the former would fight against the construction of all large dams like in Narmada , the later would adopt a more pragmatic approach arguing for a lowering of the height of such dams so that the area of submergence and the extent of displacement is greatly reduced .
The agencies’ approach also ranges from hostility against state actions to co-operation to a limited extent ; from interventionism with a desire to influence the Government’s policies to micro-level involvement for eco-generation .
The activities of voluntary organisations involved with issues concerning environment include , environmental education , collection , analysis and dissemination of information , mobilisation and organisation of public opinion against policies and projects having deleterious impact on the environment as well as on the dependent population and wherever necessary seeking redressal through judicial intervention . The actions mainly are aimed at the amelioration of environmental problems leading to newer models of resource management and popular participation .
Voluntary environmental groups however , work with a series of constraints ranging from the lack of trained manpower to carry out in-depth tecno-economical analysis , lack of access to authentic data from official sources in projects and programmes with implications for the environment to lack of statutory support and judicial sympathy for efforts to fight against the agents of destruction . Nevertheless , the agencies have been instrumental in demonstrating the importance of empowerment of the people to decide how best to use and preserve their natural resource base through decentralised planning and governance .
It is therefore , important that the government must build links with non governmental organisations and enlist their support in creating the awareness to ensure that development does not result in environmental degradation . The establishment of ‘Rashtriya Paryavaran Salhakar Samiti (National Environmental Advisory Committee) within the Deptt. of Environment , consisting of representatives from voluntary agencies to keep the government informed about peoples’ problem and emerging issues is a step in the right direction .
In the ultimate analysis , unless there is partnership with the public , none of the objectives of development will be fulfilled . A Government will be environment conscious to the same degree as its people . It is peoples’ audit or concerns that alone will ensure the country’s environmental survival (39) . The greater the partnership between the people and the government , the greater will be the chances for the environment to survive even of appropriate government response to ensure that survival .
Unless India recreates nature on a massive scale with a combination of eco-friendly policies and programmes that ensure growth with equity and development in harmony with environment , with people’s participation , the country may soon find itself sitting as an ecological time bomb of gravest consequences .
1] Reported in Yojna 2] Population Report : John Hopkins University ;U S A .3] Development In Harmony With Nature ; Yojna ; June-15 , 1994 .4] D.K.Roy , Voluntary Health Association ; Tripura : Asian Age ,also contrast it with the view of A.K.Krisna Kumar ,Rubber Production Commissioner ; Rubber Board ; ‘[Rubber] plantations would lead to eco-preservation , generating bio-mass , improve soil properties , prevent soil erosion ,improve micro-climate ,enrich organic matter status and maintain flora and fauna of various types’ .5] Dunu Roy : Shadol Group 6] Ashok Kothari 7]Lester Brown , John Bogart ; Can The Growing Population Feed Itself ? ; Scientific American ; March 1994 . 8] Bittu Seghal ; Denotification And Destruction : Hindu Survey Of Environment ; 1994 . 9] M.K.Raitsinh ; Beyond The Tiger , Protraits of Asian Wild Life . 10] M. Gadgil , For Genuine Friendship ; HSE- 1994 11] Dr . C.R.Mohaptra ; source National Seminar On Cleaner Technologies 12] L.C. Jain ; In Touch With People . HSE-1994 13] K.P.Niyati ; Environmental spokesman C I I ; India Today ,Sept -15 ,1996 14] Omesh Saigal , Member Secretary , National Capital Region Planning Board ; India Today 15] Anil Agarwal, Center for Science & Environment , New Delhi . 16] P. Khanna , N E E R I ; India Today ; Dec-15 , 1996 17] Walter Fernades , J.C.Das , S.N.Rao 18] Thyer Sudder 19] Govt . Of India Report 1985 20] Martin Silverman 21] Fernades ,Menon & Viegas ,1988 22] Viegas & Menon ,1986 23]Iravati Karve 24] Philip Viegas ; Hirakud Dam Oustees. 25] Resettlement and rehabilitation of Dam Outees, Kashyap Markandi. 26] The outees of Pong Dam; Their search for Home Renu Bhanot/Mirdula Singh 27] Fernades Menon and Viegas. 28] Kashyap Mankodi. 29] Report on Regali Dam outees by R.K.Nayak. The Bank has lauded the multi operational rehabilitation package offered by NTPC in Talcher Super Thermal Power Project. 30] Sunil Roy; Former High Commissioner to Nigeria and Full time freelance environmental agitator. 31] L.C.Jain, Destroyer Deparments. 32] Sunil Roy 33]Ashis Kothari , Missing the Wood for the Trees 34] S.Santhi & S. Sathis & Chandan Nair ; The Bio-sphere Challenge . 35] K.C.Malhotra & P.Poffenberger ; Forest Regeneration through community Participation , The West Bengal Experience . 36] M.Gadgil ; Reckoning With Life , HSE-1994 37]R.Kanan I C I C I, Aim Clean Technology , HSE- 1992 38] D.Monte ; journalist & former Homi Bhaba fellow 39] B.L.Verma ; Action for Food Production .
1 . DEVELOPMENT ,DISPLACEMENT AND REHABILITATION ; EDIT- WALTER FERNADES , E. GANGULY THAKURAL , IDIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTE .
2 . ENERGY CHOICES FOR THE FUTURE ; PROF. A.N.REDDY , INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE . 3 . M.S.SWAMINATHAN EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT : FOCUS- SUSTAINABLE GROWTH HINDU SURVEY OF ENVIRONMENT [ H S E ] 1992
4 . BIO-DIVERSITY ; TIME FOR BOLD STEPS , MADHAV GADGIL ; H S E – 1992
5 . BIO-DIVERSITY ; RECOKNING WITH LIFE , MADHAV GADGIL ; H S E – 1994
6 . PEOPLES’ MOVEMENT ; EVOLVING A NEW PHILOSOPHY ; KALPANA SHARMA , H S E -1992
7 . DECENTRALISATION ; IN TOUCH WITH PEOPLE L.C.JAIN , H S E -1992
8 . ENVIRONMENTAL CASES ; WHAT THE JUDICIARY CAN DO , M.C.MEHTA , H S E – 1992
9 . GROWING AWARENESS ; POLLUTION – CHALLENGE , RESPONSES ; NEENA VYAS .
10 . PEOPLES’ PARTICIPATION IN SOCIAL FORESTRY – A FELT NEED IN INDIA ; JIYALAL GUPTA & J.P.JADAV ; KURUKSHETRA ; DEC. 1994
11 . POPULATION & DEVELOPMENT ; P.K.BANDOPADHYAYA ; YOJANA , SEPT. 1994
12 . POPULATION & FOOD ; A CRISIS IN THE HORIZON ; M.S.SWAMINATHAN , H S E -1994
13 . PESTICIDES ; HARM FAR OUTWEIGHS USE , G.VENKATRAMANI , H S E 1992
14 . READINGS FROM TRAINING SEMINAR ON RESETTLEMENT & REHABILITATION FOR E D I ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA , HYDERABAD .
A] ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF INVOLUNTARY RESETTLEMENT ; RICHARD C. MANNING
B] RESETTLEMENT & REHABILITATION OF PROJECT AFFECTED PERSONS ; K.S.SHARMA & D.SRAVAN KUMAR 1
5 . INDIA TODAY SERIES ON POISIONING OF INDIA ; DEC-1996 TO JUNE- 1997
16 . STATE OF INDIA’S ENVIRONMENT ; A CITIZEN’S REPORT ; CENTER FOR SCIENCE & ENVIRONMENT
17 . ECO-POLITICS & THE ADIVASIS ; TAPAN .K.BOSE ; CINEMAT FOUNDATION ,1993
18 . FOREST POLICY & TRIBAL DEVELOPMENT ; PROBLEMS OF IMPLEMENTATION , ECOLOGY & EXPLOITATION ; GOPA JOSHI , INDIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTE .
19 . DISPLACEMENT & REHABILITATION ; AN ESTIMATE OF EXTENT & PROSPECTS , WALTER FERNADES , J.C.DAS & S.RAO.
20 . REHABILITATION POLICY OF THE CENTRAL MINISTRIES ; KALPANA VASWANI
21 . A CRY IN THE WILDERNESS ; OUTLOOK , MARCH ,19 ,1997 .
22 . ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVISM ; A GREENIE TURNS THE HEAT ; SAIRA MENZEES , OUTLOOK , DEC-18.1996 .
MRS . DHARITREE DWIVEDY
PROJECT EXECUTIVE : RASHTRIYA GRAMIN VIKAS NIDHI
[ NATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT FUND ]